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No. 483: Literature review and compilation of ecotoxicity data of fluoride, rare earth elements, and naturally occurring radionuclides

Hansen, V., Gustavson, K., Asmund, G. & Jia, Y. 2022. Literature review of ecotoxicity data of fluoride, rare earth elements and naturally occurring radionuclides. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 83 pp. Scientific Report No. 483. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR483.pdf


Since previous mining projects in Greenland have not involved the exploitation of minerals containing rare earth elements (REEs), naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs), and fluoride (F) there was a need to build up specific knowledge at the Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE) and Greenland Institute of Natural Resources (GINR) on ecotoxicity data on these contaminants. No Greenlandic environmental quality criteria guidelines exist for F, REEs, and NORs, and hence this report focuses on these elements.

This report by DCE and GINR aims to gather worldwide information on excitotoxicity data on F, REEs, and NORs that can potentially be used in Greenland. The report is not explicitly focused on Kvanefjeld and Tanbreeze mineral exploration projects in south Greenland but on the mining and milling of minerals containing REEs, NORs, and F in general in Greenland.

The report provides relevant information to be used as a basis for environmental regulation and monitoring of mining projects and establish guidelines on concentrations threshold values for the REEs, NORs, and F in water, soil, dust, vegetation, berries, birds, and fish both in the mining area but also for the surrounding environment. This report can also be used for teaching or as guide for the general public, politicians, authorities, education, industry, and other Greenland stakeholders.