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No. 172: Danish emission inventory for industrial processes

Hjelgaard, K. & Nielsen, O.-K., 2015. Danish emission inventory for industrial processes. Results of inventories up to 2013. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 159 pp. Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No.172 http://dce2.au.dk/Pub/SR172.pdf 

Summary

Danish emission inventories are prepared on an annual basis and are reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or Climate Convention) and to the Kyoto Protocol as well as to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention). Furthermore, a greenhouse gas emission inventory is reported to the European Union (EU) due to the EU – as well as the individual member states – being party to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Inventories also include four pollutants that are estimated for reporting to the European Commission’s National Emissions Ceiling Directive (NECD).

The annual Danish emission inventories are prepared by the DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University. The inventories include the following pollutants relevant to industrial processes: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), methane (CH4), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), ammonia (NH3), heavy metals (HMs), polyclorinated dibenzodioxins and –furans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition to annual national emissions, the report includes emission data for a number of source categories. Every four years the reporting includes data on the geographical distribution of the emissions, a projection of emissions, data and details of the activity data, e.g. fuel consumption – on which the inventories are based. The next due date is 1 May 2017.

The pollutants listed above correspond to the requirements of the UNFCCC, UNECE and EU to whom the emission inventories are reported. Other pollutants could be relevant for the source categories included in this report for environment impact assessment, but these will fall outside the scope of the emission inventories and will therefore not be included.

The inventories for industrial processes are largely based on official Danish statistics (from Statistics Denmark) and on a set of emission factors for various source categories and technologies. For some source categories the official statistics are supplemented by information from individual plants or from industrial associations. Plant specific emissions for large industrial sources are incorporated into the inventories. This report provides detailed background information on the methodology and references for the input data in the inventory – including activity data and emission factors.

The emission factors are based on either national references or on international guidance documents (EEA, (2004, 2009, 2013); IPCC, (2000, 2006)). The majority of the country-specific emission factors are determined from Danish research reports or calculations based on plant-specific emission data from a considerable number of individual plants. The plant-specific emission factors are provided by plant operators, e.g. in annual environmental reports or in the reports under the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS).

Greenhouse gases

An overview of the sources identified is presented in Table 0.1 in the report with an indication of the contribution to the industrial part of the emission of greenhouse gases in 2013. The emissions are extracted from the Common Reporting Format (CRF) tables.

The subsector Mineral Industry (2A) constitutes 51 % and Product Uses as Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) (2F) constitutes 41 % of the greenhouse gas emission in 2013 from the Industrial Processes sector. Other Product Manufacture and Use (2G) constitutes 8 % and the remaining three subsectors Chemical Industry (2B), Metal Industry (2C) and Electronics Industry (2E) each constitutes below 0.2 %of the total industrial process emission of greenhouse gases in 2013. Greenhouse gas emissions from Metal Industry (2C) were low in recent years, since the single Danish steel production facility (2C1) was last in operation in 2005. Emissions from Non-Energy Products from Fuels and Solvent Use (2D) are not included in this sector report (Fauser, 2010).

The total emission of greenhouse gases (excl. emissions/removals from Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)) in Denmark in 2013 is estimated to 54.6 Gg CO2 equivalents, of which industrial processes contribute with 1.94 Gg CO2 equivalents (3.6 %). The emission of greenhouse gases from industrial processes from 1990-2013 are presented in Figure 0.1 in the report.

The key categories in the Industrial Processes sector - Cement Production and Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - constitute 1.6 % and 1.3 % respectively of the total national emission of greenhouse gases. The trends in greenhouse gases from the Industrial Processes sector/subsectors are presented in Table 0.2 in the report and they will be discussed subsector by subsector below.

The emission of F-gases is documented in the report “Danish consumption and emission of F-gases, Year 2013” (Poulsen, 2015) and will only briefly be described in this report.

Other pollutants

Emissions of air pollution occur in many subsectors under industrial processes. An overview of the emissions of main pollutants (SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CO and NH3) and particulate matter (Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 mm (PM10) and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5)) is shown in Table 0.3 in the report.

Production of nitric acid ceased in Denmark in 2005, which caused a significant decrease in the emissions of NOx and particulate matter from industrial processes. The CO emission has decreased significantly from the source Other mineral products, this is due to a decrease in emissions from the Danish producer of mineral wool caused by the establishment of abatement measures in 2009-2010. In the later years emissions of SO2 have decreased due to lower production of bricks, tiles and expanded clay products (included in Other mineral products (IPCC/CRF Code 2A6)).

The emissions of heavy metals (Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) and persistent organic pollutants (PCDD/F, HCB and PCBs) are shown in Table 0.4 in the report.

The closure of the electro steelwork in 2002 with the brief reopening in 2005 as well as the closure of the secondary aluminium plant in 2008 has meant a decrease in emissions of several heavy metal (e.g. Pb, Zn) and POPs (e.g. PCDD/F, HCB and PCBs). Legislation from 2000 and 2007 regulating and eventually forbidding Pb in fireworks has also reduced Pb emissions from Other product use substantially.