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No. 171: Denmark's National Inventory Report 2015. Emission Inventories 1990-2013

Nielsen, O.-K., Plejdrup, M.S., Winther, M., Nielsen, M., Gyldenkærne, S., Mikkelsen, M.H., Albrektsen, R., Thomsen, M., Hjelgaard, K., Fauser, P., Bruun, H.G., Johannsen, V.K., Nord-Larsen, T., Vesterdal, L., Møller, I.S., Caspersen, O.H., Rasmussen, E., Petersen, S.B., Baunbæk, L. & Hansen, M.G. 2015. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2015. Emission Inventories 1990-2013 - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 911pp. Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR171.pdf

Summary

Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change

According to Decision 13/CP.20 of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, CRF Reporter version 5.0.0 was not functioning in order to enable Annex I Parties to submit their CRF tables for the year 2015. In the same Decision, the Conference of the Parties reiterated that Annex I Parties in 2015 may submit their CRF tables after April 15, but no longer than the corresponding delay in the CRF Reporter availability. "Functioning" software means that the data on the greenhouse emissions/removals are reported accurately both in terms of reporting format tables and XML format.

CRF reporter version 5.10 still contains issues in the reporting format tables and XML format in relation to Kyoto Protocol requirements, and it is therefore not yet functioning to allow submission of all the information required under Kyoto Protocol.

Recalling the Conference of Parties invitation to submit as soon as practically possible, and considering that CRF reporter 5.10 allows sufficiently accurate reporting under the UNFCCC (even if minor inconsistencies may still exist in the reporting tables, as per the Release Note accompanying CRF Reporter 5.10), the present report is the official submission for the year 2015 under the UNFCCC. The present report is not an official submission under the Kyoto Protocol, even though some of the information included may relate to the requirements under the Kyoto Protocol.

Reporting

This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report (NIR) 2015 for submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, due April 15, 2015. The report contains detailed information about Denmark’s inventories for all years from 1990 to 2013. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting and review. The main difference between Denmark’s NIR 2015 report to the European Commission, due March 15, 2015, and this report to UNFCCC is reporting of territories. The NIR 2015 to the EU Commission was for Denmark, while this NIR 2015 to the UNFCCC is for Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The suggested outline provided by the UNFCCC secretariat has been followed to include the necessary information under the Kyoto Protocol. The report includes detailed and complete information on the inventories for all years from year 1990 to the year 2013, in order to ensure transparency.

The annual emission inventories for the years from 1990 to 2013 are reported in the Common Reporting Format (CRF). Within this submission separate CRF’s are available for Denmark (EU), Greenland, the Faroe Islands, for Denmark and Greenland (KP) as well as for Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands (UNFCCC). The CRF spreadsheets contain data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors for each year. Emission trends are given for each greenhouse gas and for total greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents.

The issues addressed in this report are: Trends in greenhouse gas emissions, description of each emission category of the CRF, uncertainty estimates, explanations on recalculations, planned improvements and procedure for quality assurance and control. The information presented in Chapters 2-9 and Chapter 11 refers to Denmark (EU) only. Specific information regarding the submission of Greenland and the Faroe Islands is included in Chapter 16 and Annex 8, respectively. Chapter 17 contains information on the aggregated submission of Denmark and Greenland under the Kyoto Protocol (e.g. on trends, uncertainties and key category analysis).

This report itself does not contain the full set of CRF tables. The full set of CRF tables is available at the EIONET, Central Data Repository, kept by the European Environmental Agency:

http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/dk/Air_Emission_Inventories

In the report English notation is used: “.” (full stop) for decimal sign and mostly space for division of thousands. The English notation for division of thousand as “,” (comma) is not used due to the risk of being misinterpreted by Danish readers.

Institutions responsible

On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building, the Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE), Aarhus University, is responsible for the calculation and reporting of the Danish national emission inventory to EU and the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and UNECE CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution) conventions. Hence, DCE prepares and publishes the annual submission for Denmark to the EU and UNFCCC of the National Inventory Report and the greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories in the Common Reporting Format, in accordance with the UNFCCC guidelines. Further, DCE is responsible for reporting the national inventory for the Kingdom of Denmark to the UNFCCC. DCE is also the body designated with overall responsibility for the national inventory under the Kyoto Protocol for Greenland and Denmark. Furthermore, DCE participates when reporting issues are discussed in the regime of UNFCCC and EU (Monitoring Mechanism).

The work concerning the annual greenhouse gas emission inventory is carried out in cooperation with Danish ministries, research institutes, organisations and companies. The Government of Greenland is responsible for finalising and transferring the inventory for Greenland to DCE. The Faroe Islands Environmental Agency is responsible for finalising and transferring the inventory for the Faroe Islands to DCE.

Greenhouse gases

The greenhouse gases reported are those under the UN Climate Convention:

  • Carbon dioxide                                 CO2
  • Methane                                          CH4
  • Nitrous oxide                                    N2O
  • Hydrofluorocarbons                           HFCs
  • Perfluorocarbons                               PFCs
  • Sulphur hexafluoride                         SF6

The global warming potential (GWP) for various greenhouse gases has been defined as the warming effect over a given time frame of a given weight of a specific substance relative to the same weight of CO2. The purpose of this measure is to be able to compare and integrate the effects of the individual greenhouse gases on the global climate. Typical lifetimes in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases are very different, e.g. approximately 12 and 120 years for CH4 and N2O, respectively. So the time perspective clearly plays a decisive role. The life frame chosen is typically 100 years. The effect of the various greenhouse gases can then be converted into the equivalent quantity of CO2, i.e. the quantity of CO2 giving the same effect in absorbing solar radiation. According to the IPCC and their Fourth Assessment Report, which UNFCCC has decided to use as reference, the global warming potentials for a 100-year time horizon are:

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2):                     1
  • Methane (CH4):                             25
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O):                       298

Based on weight and a 100-year period, CH4 is thus 25 times more powerful a greenhouse gas than CO2 and N2O is 298 times more powerful than CO2. Some of the other greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride) have considerably higher global warming potentials. For example, sulphur hexafluoride has a global warming potential of 22 800. The values for global warming potential used in this report are those prescribed by UNFCCC. The indirect greenhouse gases reported are nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Since no GWPs are assigned to these gases, they do not contribute to GHG emissions in CO2 equivalents.

Summary of national emission and removal trends

Summary ES.2-4 refers to the inventory for Denmark only. The inventories for Greenland, Denmark and Greenland and the Faroe islands are described in Chapter 16 and 17 and Annex 8, respectively.

Greenhouse gas emissions inventory

The greenhouse gas emissions are estimated according to the IPCC guidelines and guidance and are aggregated into six main sectors. According to decisions made under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol the greenhouse gas emissions are estimated according to the IPCC 2006 guidelines and the IPCC 2000 good practice guidance. The greenhouse gases include CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3 Figure ES.1 shows the estimated total greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents from 1990 to 2013. The emissions are not corrected for electricity trade or temperature variations. CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas contributing in 2013 to national total in CO2 equivalents excluding LULUCF (Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry) with 76.3 % followed by N2O with 9.4 %, CH4 12.7 % and F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) with 1.7 %. Seen over the time series from 1990 to 2013 these percentages have been increasing for CH4 and F-gases and decreasing for N2O. The percentages for CO2 show larger fluctuations during the time series. Stationary combustion plants, Transport and Agriculture represent the largest contributing categories to emissions of greenhouse gases, followed by Industrial processes and product use, Waste and Fugitive emissions, see Figure ES.1. The net CO2 emission by LULUCF in 2013 is 4.4 % of the total emission in CO2 equivalents excl. LULUCF. The national total greenhouse gas emission in CO2 equivalents excluding LULUCF has decreased by 21.2 % from 1990 to 2013 and 25.1 % including LULUCF. Comments to the overall trends for the individual greenhouse gases etc. seen in Figure ES.1 are given in the sections below.

KP-LULUCF activities

Net emissions from Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation (ARD) activities in 2013 were 79 kt CO2 equivalents. Net removals from Forest Management (FM) were 2 350 kt CO2 equivalents (Table ES.1).

For Cropland Management (CM) the net emissions in 2013 were 4 163 kt CO2 equivalents compared to a net emission in 1990 of 5 444 kt CO2 equivalents.

For Grazing land Management (GM) the net emissions in 2013 were 602 kt CO2 equivalents compared to a net emission in 1990 of 796 kt CO2 equivalents.

Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends

Greenhouse gas emissions inventory

Energy

The largest source of CO2 emission is the energy sector, which includes the combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas.

The emission of CO2 from Energy Industries has decreased by 28.2 % from 1990 to 2013. The relatively large fluctuation in the emission is due to inter-country electricity trade. Thus, the high emissions in 1991, 1994, 1996, 2003 and 2006 reflect a large electricity export and the low emissions in 1990, 1992 and 2005, 2008 and 2011-2013 are due to a large import of electricity. The main reason for this decrease owe to decreasing fuel consumption, mainly for coal and natural gas. This decrease is partly due to increasing import of electricity and partly to increasing production of wind power and other renewable energy sources.

The increasing emission of CH4 during the nineties is due to the increasing use of gas engines in decentralised cogeneration plants. The CH4 emissions from this sector have been decreasing from 2001 to 2013 due to the liberalisation of the electricity market. The CO2 emission from the transport sector increased by 11.5 % from 1990 to 2013, mainly due to increasing road traffic.

Industrial processes and product use

The GHG emissions from industrial processes and product use, i.e. emissions from processes other than fuel combustion, amount in 2013 to 3.9 % of the total emission in CO2 equivalents (excl. LULUCF). The main sources are cement production, refrigeration, foam blowing and calcination of limestone. The CO2 emission from cement production – which is the largest source contributing in 2013 with 1.6 % of the national total – decreased by 1.7 % from 1990 to 2013. The second largest source has previously been N2O from the production of nitric acid. However, the production of nitric acid/fertiliser ceased in 2004 and therefore the emission of N2O also ceased.

The emission of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 has increased by 167.7 % from 1995 until 2013, largely due to the increasing emission of HFCs. The use of HFCs, and especially HFC-134a, has increased several fold and thus HFCs have become the dominant F-gases, contributing 70.1 % to the F-gas total in 1995, rising to 84.7 % in 2013. HFC-134a is mainly used as a refrigerant. However, the use of HFC-134a is now stabilising. This is due to Danish legislation, which in 2007 banned new HFC-based refrigerant stationary systems. However, in contrast to this trend is the increasing use of air conditioning systems in mobile systems.

The major source to N2O emissions from the IPPU sector is Other product manufacture and use, contributing 99 % of the sectoral N2O emission in 2013.

Agriculture

The agricultural sector contributes in 2013 with 18.6 % of the total greenhouse gas emission in CO2 equivalents (excl. LULUCF) and is the most important sector regarding the emissions of N2O and CH4. In 2013, the contribution of N2O and CH4 to the total emission of these gases was 86.7 % and 77.9 %, respectively. The N2O emission from agriculture decreased by 28.8 % from 1990 to 2013. The main reason for the decrease is a legislative demand for an improved utilisation of nitrogen in manure. This result in less nitrogen excreted per livestock unit produced and a considerable reduction in the use of fertilisers. From 1990 to 2013, the emission of CH4 from enteric fermentation has decreased due to decreasing numbers of cattle. However, the emission from manure management has increased due to changes in stable management systems towards an increase in slurry-based systems. Altogether, the emission of CH4 for the agricultural sector has decreased by 2.6 % from 1990 to 2013.

Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

The LULUCF sector alters between being a net sink and a net source of GHG. In 2013 LULUCF was a net source with 4.4 % of the total GHG emission excluding LULUCF. In 2012 LULUCF was a net source equivalent to 4.3 % of the total GHG emission (excluding LULUCF). The overall trend in the LULUCF sector without Forestry is a decrease of 27 % since 1990.

In 2013 Forest Land was a large sink of 2 310 CO2 equivalents, while Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands and Settlements was net sources contributing with 4 104 kt CO2 equivalents, 592 kt CO2 equivalents, 41 kt CO2 equivalents and 79 kt CO2 equivalents, respectively.

Waste

The waste sector contributes in 2013 with 2.4 % to the national total of greenhouse gas emissions (excl. LULUCF), 15.7 % of the total CH4 emission and 3.8 % of the total N2O emission. The sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration without energy recovery (e.g. incineration of animal carcasses) and other waste (e.g. composting and accidental fires).

The GHG emission from the sector has decreased by 36.4 % from 1990 to 2013. This decrease is a result of (1) a decrease in the CH4 emission from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) by 52.4 % due to the increasing use of waste for power and heat production, and (2) a decrease in emission of N2O from wastewater (WW) handling systems of 26.7 % due to upgrading of WW treatment plants. These decreases are counteracted by an increase in CH4 from WW of 13.3 % due to increasing industrial load to WW systems. In 2013 the contribution of CH4 from SWDS was 12.2 % of the total CH4 emission. The CH4 emission from WW amounts in 2013 to 1.6 % of the total CH4 emissions. The emission of N2O from WW in 2013 is 1.4 % of national total of N2O. Since all incinerated waste is used for power and heat production, the emissions are included in the 1A CRF category.

KP-LULUCF activities

In 2013 the activities under Article 3.3 was a net source of 79 kt CO2 equivalents and the activities under Article 3.4 was a net source of 2 415 kt CO2 equivalents. A short overview of KP-LULUCF is given in Chapter ES.2.2 and a more detailed description is given in Chapter 11.

Other information

Quality assurance and quality control

A plan for Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) in greenhouse gas emission inventories is included in the report. The plan is in accordance with the guidelines provided by the UNFCCC (Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Guidelines for National Systems). ISO 9000 standards are also used as an important input for the plan.

The plan comprises a framework for documenting and reporting emissions in a way that emphasize transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy. To fulfil these high criteria, the data structure describes the pathway, from the collection of raw data to data compilation and modelling and finally reporting.

As part of the Quality Assurance (QA) activities, emission inventory sector reports are being prepared and sent for review to national experts not involved in the inventory development. To date, the reviews have been completed for the stationary combustion plants sector, the fugitive emissions from fuels sector, the transport sector, the solvents and other product use sector and the agricultural sector. In order to evaluate the Danish emission inventories, a project where emission levels and emission factors are compared with those in other countries has been conducted.

Completeness

The Danish greenhouse gas emission inventories include all sources identified by the revised IPPC guidelines.

Please see Annex 5 for more information.

Recalculations and improvements

The main improvements of the inventories are:

Energy

Stationary Combustion

For stationary combustion plants, the emission estimates for the years 1990-2012 have been updated according to the latest energy statistics published by the Danish Energy Agency. The update included both end use and transformation sectors as well as a source category update. The changes in the energy statistics are largest for the years 2010, 2011 and 2012.

A time series for the CH4 emission factor for residential wood combustion have been added for 1990-2000. This cause an increased CH4 emission estimated for residential plants in 1990-2000.

The consumption of wood in residential plants in 2012 is 4% lower in the revised energy statistics than in the energy statistics applied last year. This causes a lower emission of CH4 reported for 2012 this year.

The increased CO2 emission from residential plants is related to improved fuel data disaggregation between the transport sector and stationary combustion plants.

Mobile sources

The following recalculations and improvements of the emission inventories have been made since the emission reporting in 2014.

Road transport

Based on the updated version of COPERT IV version 11 launched in 2014, fuel consumption and NOx , VOC, CO and PM emission factors for euro 5 and 6 gasoline and diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles have been updated in the model. Updated Euro V and VI fuel consumption and NOx, VOC, CO and PM emission factors for heavy duty vehicles have been included in the calculations also.

For N2O and NH3, Euro 5/6 and V/VI emission factors are also updated for passenger cars/light duty vehicles (only N2O) and heavy duty vehicles.

Further a new Euro 6c technology class has been added for diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles.

The amount of diesel sold for road transport reported by the Danish Energy Agency has been slightly changed in 2012.

Very small changes in mileage data has been made for the years 1985-2012 based on new information from DTU Transport.

The percentage emission change interval and year of largest percentage differences (low %; high %, year) for the different emission components are: CO2 (0 %; 0.2 %, 2011), CH4 (-0.1 %; 0.4 %, 2012) and N2O (-21.7 %; 0 %, 2006).

Navigation

Recreational craft have been regrouped in the Danish inventory. These vessels have now been removed from the navigation sector and included under Other (1A5b), the latter sector according to its sector subtitle also comprise recreational craft. Further, small amounts of LPG and kerosene previously included in the navigation sector has now been transferred to stationary sources. 

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for domestic navigation are noted for: CO2 (-20 %), CH4 (-72 % and N2O (-12 %).

Agriculture/forestry

The baseline emission factors of NOx, TSP, CO and VOC and the transient factors for fuel consumption, NOx, TSP, CO and VOC for diesel machinery has been slightly changed in the calculation model used to estimate the emissions from Danish non road mobile machinery. Further, the CH4 fraction of VOC has been updated. The changes are made based on new emission knowledge published by IFEU (1999) for baseline emission factors and CH4 fractions, and IFEU (2014) for transient factors.

The number of agricultural tractors has been regrouped into finer engine size intervals for all inventory years. The total number of agricultural tractors and harvesters has been updated for the years 2006-2012 based on new stock data from Statistics Denmark for the year 2013.

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for agriculture/forestry are noted for: The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) are noted for: CO2 (0.5 %), CH4 (100 % and N2O (0.6 %).

Fisheries

Small amounts of LPG and kerosene previously included in the navigation sector has now been transferred to stationary sources.

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for fisheries are noted for: CO2 (-0.8 %), CH4 (-8.9 % and N2O (0.1 %).

Industry

The baseline emission factors of NOx, TSP, CO and VOC and the transient factors for fuel consumption, NOx, TSP, CO and VOC for diesel machinery has been slightly changed in the calculation model used to estimate the emissions from Danish non road mobile machinery. Further, the CH4 fraction of VOC has been updated. The changes are made based on new emission knowledge published by IFEU (1999) for baseline emission factors and CH4 fractions, and IFEU (2014) for transient factors.

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for industrial non road machinery are noted for: CO2 (0.6 %), CH4 (14 % and N2O (0.1 %).

Civil aviation

The model used for calculating civil aviation emissions has been updated by replacing the previous fuel consumption and emission factors for representative aircraft types (46 types) with a new and more comprehensive list of aircraft types (79 types) provided by Eurocontrol and published in the EMEP/EEA guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2014).

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for civil aviation are noted for: CO2 (32 %), CH4 (44 % and N2O (-8.9 %).

Military

Recreational craft have been regrouped in the Danish inventory. These vessels have now been removed from the navigation sector and included under Other (1A5b), the latter sector according to its sector subtitle also comprises recreational craft.

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for military are noted for: CO2 (108 %), CH4 (1780 %) and N2O (93 %).

Fugitive emissions

In the emission inventory reported in 2015 for the years 1990-2013 the following recalculations regarding fugitive emissions from fuels have been applied:

Exploration of oil and natural gas

Exploration has been included as a new source in the emission inventory as activity data has now been made available by the Danish Energy Agency. Emissions only occur in years with exploration and appraisal wells (E/A wells) (1990-2000, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2013). The largest E/A productions occurred in 1990 and 2002, contributing 3.8 % and 4.0 % to the fugitive CO2 emission, 0.6 % and 1.0 % to the fugitive CH4 emission, and 2.6 % and 3.9 % to the fugitive N2O emission.

Refineries

The methodology for estimating CH4 from one refinery has been changed, resulting in an increase of the CH4 emissions for the years 1994-2003 and a decrease for the years 2004-2012. The refinery report annual VOC emissions based on results from measurement campaigns, the last in carried out in 2006. In previous inventories, the split between CH4 and NMVOC given by the refinery has been use. This methodology has been changed, as the CH4 share was much higher than for the other Danish refinery, and also much higher than corresponding shares found in a literature study. The CH4 share of VOC has been changed to 10 % for all years, as given by the other Danish refinery and supported by shares of 10-20 % found for Swedish refineries. Previously, the shares were 1 % (1994-2003), 20 % (2004-2005), and 44 % (2006-2012). The largest decrease of the CH4 emissions is estimated for the years 2006-2012 (1 611 tonnes per year), corresponding 17 % - 35 % of the total fugitive CH4 emissions (17 % in 2006 and 35 % in 2012).

Gas transmission and distribution

Activity data has been updated for one town gas distribution company for the year 2012. The change of 0.22 tonnes CH4 has insignificant impact on the total fugitive emissions (< 0.01%).

Venting

Activity data and direct CH4 emission has been corrected for one gas storage plant for 2012 according to the annual environmental report. The change of 0.002 tonnes CH4 is insignificant for the total fugitive CH4 emissions (< 0.01%).

Flaring in refineries

The CO2 emission factor has been updated for 1994-2006 to the average of first five years with ETS data available (2007-2011) for two refineries. For a third refinery that was closed down in 1996 the CO2 emission factor has been updated for the years 1994-1996 according to the 2013 EMEP/EEA Guidebook. The changes of the emissions are largest in 1994 with an increase of 3 kt CO2, corresponding 0.5 % of the total fugitive emission.

Flaring in oil and gas extraction

The implied emission factor for CO2 has been updated for the years 1990-2007 to the average of ETS data for the years 2008-2012 instead of the previously applied average of the years 2008-2010. The increase of the CO2 emission factor is 1 %, and the increase of the emissions is 2.9 kt CO2 (1990) to 10.4 kt CO2 (1999), corresponding to 0.6 % and 0.9 % of the total fugitive CO2 emissions, respectively.

Flaring in gas storage and treatment plants

CH4 emissions are updated according to the environmental report for the gas treatment plant for 2012. CH4 has been changed from 0.502 tonnes to 0.027 tonnes. The decrease of the CH4 emissions accounts for 0.01 % of the total fugitive emissions.

Flaring in gas transmission and distribution

Flaring in gas transmission and distribution has been included as a new source in the emission inventory, only occurring in the years 2011-2013.  The gas transmission company inform that they have started using a mobile flare in large construction works, and also one distribution company is flaring gas. The largest emissions occur in 2012 with 0.1 kt CO2 and 0.7 ktonnes CH4, corresponding 0.05 % and 0.02 % of the total fugitive emissions.

Industrial Processes

Lime production

The activity data for lime no longer includes slaked lime and imported burnt lime. Personal communication with the industry made it clear that the inclusion of slacked lime resulted in a double counting, because statistical data on the production of burned lime also includes lime that is later slacked. Also, imported burned lime was by mistake included for 2010-2011 for Faxe Kalk. This recalculation related to slacked lime results in a decreased emission of between 5 % (1999) and 18 % (1991). The double counting of hydrated lime was only a problem for the years 1990-2010 (where EU-ETS data was not available/used) and the inclusion of imported burned lime only affected 2011-2012 (where EU-ETS data was used). The result of these recalculations has been an increase of the implied emission factor, and that the implied emission factors for 1990-2010 now matches the level of those for 2011-2013.

The EU-ETS data from Faxe Kalk for 2006-2010 have been included in this year’s inventory; this change has only caused minor recalculation.

The stoichiometric emission factor for lime production has been corrected from 0.7857 to 0.7850 kg CO2 per kg CaO for the entire time series.

The CO2 emissions from lime production in the sugar industry have been moved from the CRF category “2H2 Food and Beverages Industry” (previously “2D2 Food and Drink”; IPCC, 1997), to the CRF category “2A2 Lime Production” (IPCC, 2006).

Glass production

A new methodology for calculating emissions from container glass production for 1990-2005 was used in this year’s inventory. The resulting recalculations are between -1 % (1995) and +22 % (1998); average for 1990-2005 is an increase of 2 %. More detailed data was found for dolomite in 2006-2007, causing a decrease in emissions of 22 % and 25 % for the two years respectively.

Better estimates for the activity data for container glass in 1998-2012 were calculated for this year’s inventory. This change has no influence on the emission but creates more stable implied emission factor.

The consumption of dolomite in the production of glass wool in 1990-2005 has been added as a raw material carbonate; as a result emissions from this production have increased with between 16 % (1999) and 37 % (2000); average for 1990-2005 is 29 %.

In last year’s submission, the CO2 emission from glass wool production in 2009 was mistakenly reported as 2977 Mg, this has now been corrected to 1428 Mg causing a 52 % decrease from this production in 2009.

Ceramics

The methodologies for calculating emissions from both bricks and expanded clay products have been changed for 1990-2005 in this year’s inventory. Previously, emissions were based on a number of unverifiable assumptions. Now the historical years are based on the actual implied emission factors provided by EU-ETS (2006-2013).

This recalculation has resulted in increased emissions from brickworks of 3-10 % (8 % in average) and from expanded clay producers of 9 %.

Other uses of soda ash

The source category of other uses of soda ash is new in this year’s inventory.

Flue gas desulphurisation

All activity data from this source category were reassessed and multiple recalculations were performed. Some recalculations were simple corrections of typing errors and some were more general. During the reassessment of flue gas desulphurisation at waste incineration plants, four facilities were removed from this part of the inventory because their desulphurisation is dry or semi-dry technology. It was also discovered that waste incineration plants (being power and gypsum producing) are included in the data from Energinet.dk (2014) and have therefore previously been double counted.

Mineral wool production

The CO2 emission from mineral wool production was reassessed and found to be underestimated in last year’s inventory. The surrogate data used to extrapolate emissions back in time was changed from energy consumption to raw material consumption. Emissions are now also calculated for 1995-2002 based on surrogate data instead of kept constant. Emissions have more than doubled for some years.

Chemical industry

The process related CO2 emission from production of catalysts/fertilisers was recalculated for the years 1990-1996 leading to a small increase; the production for these years is now calculated as the average production for 1997-2001.

Metal industry

A correction was made for the activity data for steel production in 1992, this recalculation has resulted in small increases in emissions for 1992 and the extrapolated/interpolated years 1990-1991 and 1993.

For magnesium production, activity data are now calculated from the consumption of SF6 and the default IPCC (2006) emission factor is applied, however this change has no influence on the emission.

CO2 emissions related to the production of secondary lead are new in this year’s inventory.

Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use

The amount of solvent, which is added to the asphalt in “cutback”, is comprised in Solvent use (CRF 2D3 Other), with an emission fac-tor of approximately unity. This amount was previously included in Road paving with asphalt (CRF 2D3 Other) as “cutback”. In the improved inventory NMVOC emissions from “cutback” asphalt in Road paving (CRF 2D3 Other) only include emissions from the asphalt fraction.

A change in allocation of amounts from Statistics Denmark (2014) has caused an increase in activity data for Asphalt roofing (CRF 2D3 Other), e.g. 2012: from 75.5 kt to 131 kt, and a relatively small increase for Road paving (CRF 2D3 Other), e.g. for 2012: from 3223 kt to 3233 kt.

CH4 emissions from Road paving with asphalt (CRF 2D3 Other) have been included.

CH4 emissions from use of candles (CRF 2D2 Paraffin wax use) have been included.

CO2 emissions from the use of urea in fuel consumption has been included in Urea used in catalysts (CRF 2D3 Other).

Other product manufacture and use

For “Medical applications of N2O” emissions have been extrapolated back to 1990. A recalculation of the activity data for 2000-2004 has caused the emission for these years to increase drastically because last year’s submission only included 1-2 distributors (out of four) for these years. Minor corrections were made for 2005-2012.

The category of “N2O used as propellant for pressure and aerosol products” is new in this year’s inventory.

CH4 emissions have been included for use of fireworks, tobacco and charcoal for barbeques.

Agriculture

Changes have been made in the number of animals due to updated numbers in the statistics. These changes are of minor importance compared to the changes caused by the change to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines.

LULUCF

In the updated land use matrix that now includes mapping of three years: 1990, 2005 and 2011, significant changes have been noted related to land use and land use changes. This includes increased afforestation in areas without support from public funds. This includes establishment of minor forests areas, to improve hunting options and to produce biomass. Some forest areas have been established through natural succession, a method now approved by the Forest Act (from 2005). In the previous reporting, mainly afforestation based on subsidies were expected and included in the reporting.

Recalculations have been made due to the update to the IPCC 2006 Guidelines. Furthermore was there, by a mistake used a wrong EF for organic soils. Elsgaard et al. (2012) is used for documentation of the EF. In the previous submission was by mistake the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) figures used instead of the net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) figures. Overall has the recalculations increased the emission from CL.

Waste

A review of plant specific data was initiated with the purpose of identifying process emissions from the biogas production at wastewater treatment plants. Data on biogas lost via venting is scarce but based on a review of plant level environmental account data reported voluntary by the WWTPs an EF value of 1.3 % of the gross energy production were applied in this year´s inventory. This has led to a small decrease in the methane lost by venting ranging between 2.9-6.4 %.

The main reason for the increase in the methane emission from sector 5.D. Wastewater treatment and discharge are to be found in the change in the default COD value for the 10 % of the population not connected to the collective sewer system from 45.625 to 56.575 kg COD/person/year (IPCC, 1996; IPCC, 2006), which results in an increase in the methane emission from septic tanks of 29.2%. Likewise, the use of COD data in place of BOD data for the influent organic matter (TOW) have resulted in an increase in the methane emission from the sewer system and biotanks of 0-30 %.

Only a minor update in the influent N for the year 2011 resulting in a small increase in the N2O emission of 0.24 %, while no methodological changes have occurred.

KP-LULUCF

A recalculation for KP-LULUCF has been performed as part of the switch in guidelines as well as the changes indicated for LULUCF.