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No. 21: Calculation of emissions and the number of particles on the tarmac at Copenhagen Airport

Winther, M., Ellermann, T., Massling, A., Løfstrøm, P, Nøjgaard, J. K., Ketzel. M. & Kousgaard, U. 2014. Opgørelse af emissioner og antal partikler på forpladsen i Københavns Lufthavn. DCE - Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi, Aarhus Universitet. 84 s. - Teknisk rapport fra DCE – Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi nr. 21. www2.dmu.dk/Pub/TR21.pdf

Summary

This report is made by DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University on behalf of Copenhagen Airport, and summarizes and presents the results of an emission inventory compiled for particulate numbers in Copenhagen Airport emitted by aircraft main engines and APU’s (Auxiliary Power Unit), handling equipment and road transport vehicles. The inventory is made with emphasis on the apron in relation to the working environment. The emission inventory was developed in the spring 2013 by DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University for Copenhagen Airports A/S.

The work builds upon the previous assessments conducted by DCE in the period 2009-2011 with the main objectives to quantify the atmospheric pollutants at the apron of Copenhagen Airport based on emission inventories, measurements and model calculations (www2.dmu.dk/-Pub/TR5.pdf), and in order to quantify the sources to air pollution at the apron. The emission inventory results are shown in the present report.

The previous study covered atmospheric pollutants emitted from sources at the apron, which have the potential to cause health effect amongst the staff working at the apron. Hence the assessment included among other substances measurements of PM2.5 (mass of particles with diameter smaller than 2.5 µm), the particle size distribution (diameter range 6-700 nm) and the total number of particles being an indicator for the ultra fine particle air pollution[1]. The study, however, only comprised an inventory of PM2.5, no particle number based inventory was established[2].

The measurement results showed high particle number concentrations at the apron compared with measured concentrations at the measurement stations in Copenhagen including the street measurement station at H.C. Andersens Boulevard. In order to gain more knowledge of the sources of the high particulate numbers at the airport apron, Copenhagen Airport has initiated the present emission inventory project with the aims to estimate the number of particles emitted.

Figure 1 is a detailed map of the airport apron showing terminal gates, main engine start-up marks, aircraft taxiways and runways. The map is a part of the basis for the emission inventory for different sources in the airport explained in the following.



[1] Ultra fine particles (< 100 nm) amount to  75-95% of the total number of measured particles in the 6 – 700 nm size range

[2]In the previous study the expression ”particle numbers” referred to the particle concentration given as number per volume (particles per cm3)