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No. 292: Danish emission inventory for industrial processes

Hjelgaard, K.H. & Nielsen, O.-K. 2018. Danish emission inventory for industrial processes. Results of inventories up to 2016. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 192 pp. Scientific Report No. 292. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR292.pdf

Summary

This sector report covers emissions from Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU). This sector covers process related emissions mostly related to calcination, evaporation/leaks and fugitive dust. Emissions from combustion are not included in this report, since these emissions are considered under the energy sector. In some cases, it can be difficult to split emissions between combustion and IPPU. In this report, only emissions reported in the IPPU sector are included and described including plants in which the products of combustion are used for the direct heating, drying, or any other treatment of objects or materials – in other words to say where fuels and raw materials are in contact during combustion.

Danish emission inventories are prepared on an annual basis and are reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or simply the Climate Convention) and to the Kyoto Protocol as well as to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention). Furthermore, a greenhouse gas emission inventory is reported to the European Union (EU) due to the EU – as well as the individual member states – being party to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Inventories of air pollutants are estimated for reporting to the European Commission’s National Emissions Ceiling Directive (NECD).

The annual Danish emission inventories are prepared by the DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University. The inventories include the following pollutants relevant to Industrial processes and product use: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), methane (CH4), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), ammonia (NH3), heavy metals (HMs), polyclorinated dibenzodioxins and –furans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition to annual national emissions, the report includes emission data for a number of source categories. Every four years the reporting includes data on the geographical distribution of the emissions, a projection of emissions, data and data for large point sources. The next due date is 1 May 2021.

The pollutants listed above correspond to the requirements of the UNFCCC, UNECE and EU to whom the emission inventories are reported. Other pollutants could be relevant for the source categories included in this report for environmental impact assessments, but these fall outside the scope of the emission inventories and are therefore not included.

The inventories for Industrial processes and product use are largely based on official Danish statistics (e.g. from Statistics Denmark) and on a set of emission factors for the various source categories and technologies. For some source categories, the official statistics are supplemented by information from individual plants or from industrial associations. Plant specific emissions for large industrial sources are incorporated into the inventories. This report provides detailed background information on the methodology and references for the input data in the inventory – including activity data and emission factors.

The emission factors are based either on national references or on international guidance documents, e.g. EMEP/EEA Guidebook and IPCC Guideline (EMEP/EEA, 2016 and IPCC, 2006). The majority of the country-specific emission factors are determined from data given in Danish research reports or calculated from plant-specific emission data reported by individual plants. The plant-specific emission factors are provided by plant operators, e.g. in annual environmental reports or in the reports under the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS).

Greenhouse gases

An overview of the relevant sources is presented in Table 0.1 with an indication of the contribution to the overall emission from industrial sources of greenhouse gases in 2016. The emissions are extracted from the Common Reporting Format (CRF) tables, which is the official reporting format for greenhouse gas emissions to the UNFCCC.

In 2016, the subsector Mineral industry (2A) constitutes 58 % and Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODS) (2F) constitutes 29 % of the greenhouse gas emission from the Industrial processes and product use (IPPU) sector. Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use (2D) and Other product manufacture and use (2G) constitutes 8 % and 5 % respectively while the remaining two subsectors Chemical industry (2B) and Metal industry (2C) each constitutes below 0.1 % of the total IPPU emission of greenhouse gases in 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from Metal industry (2C) have been low in recent years, since the single Danish steel production facility (2C1) was last in operation in 2005.

The total emission of greenhouse gases (excl. emissions/removals from Land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF)) in Denmark in 2016 is estimated to 55,546 Gg CO2 equivalents (CO2e), of which IPPU contributes with 2,124 Gg CO2e (3.8 %). The emission of greenhouse gases from IPPU from 1990-2016 is presented in Figure 0.1.

The key categories for level of emissions in the IPPU sector in 2016 are Cement production and Refrigeration and air conditioning - constituting 2.0 % and 1.1 % respectively of the total national emission of greenhouse gases (Nielsen et al., 2018a). For 1990, the key categories for level of emissions are Cement production and Nitric acid production 1.2 % and 1.4 % respectively. The trends in greenhouse gases from the IPPU sector/subsectors are presented in Table 0.2 and Annex 0-1 and they will be discussed subsector by subsector below.

The CO2 emissions from the IPPU sector are dominated by mineral industries and in particular cement production. The emissions increased in the early part of the time series based on increased production of cement. A significant dip in emissions occurred during the global economic recession in 2008-2010. Since then the cement production has increased again leading to increased CO2 emissions. Emissions of N2O have decreased significantly since the closure of the only nitric acid plant in Denmark.

The emission of F-gases is documented in the annual report “Danish consumption and emission of F-gases” (Poulsen, 2018) and will only briefly be described in this report.

Other pollutants

Emission of air pollution occurs in many subsectors within the Industrial processes and product use sector. An emission overview of the emissions of main pollutants (SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CO and NH3) and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is shown in Table 0.3 and Annex 0-2. Annex 0-2 also presents data for black carbon (BC).

Production of nitric acid ceased in Denmark in 2005, which caused a significant decrease in the emissions of NOx and particulate matter from Industrial processes and product use. The CO emission has decreased significantly from the source Other mineral products, this is due to a decrease in emissions from the Danish producer of mineral wool caused by the establishment of abatement measures in 2009-2010. In the later years emissions of SO2 have decreased due to lower production of bricks, tiles and expanded clay products (included in Other mineral products (IPCC/CRF Code 2A6)).

The emissions of heavy metals (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and persistent organic pollutants (dioxins/furans (PCDD/F)) are shown in Table 0.4 and Annex 0-3 (also includes Cd, Cu, Ni, Se, HCB and PCBs).

The closure of the electro steelwork in 2002 with the brief reopening in 2005 as well as the closure of the secondary aluminium plant in 2008 has meant a decrease in emissions of several heavy metal (e.g. Pb, Zn) and POPs (e.g. PCDD/F). Legislation from 2000 and 2007 regulating and eventually forbidding Pb in fireworks has also reduced Pb emissions from Other product use substantially.