No. 101: Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

Nielsen, O.-K., Plejdrup, M.S., Winther, M., Nielsen, M., Gyldenkærne, S., Mikkelsen, M.H., Albrektsen, R., Thomsen, M., Hjelgaard, K., Hoffmann, L., Fauser, P., Bruun, H.G., Johannsen, V.K., Nord-Larsen, T., Vesterdal, L., Møller, I.S., Caspersen, O.H., Rasmussen, E., Petersen, S.B., Baunbæk, L. & Hansen, M.G. 2014. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014. Emission Inventories 1990-2012 - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Aarhus University, DCE–Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 1214pp. Scientific Report from DCE–Danish Centre for Environment and Energy. dce2.au.dk/pub/SR101.pdf

Summary

ES.1 Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change

ES.1.1 Reporting

This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report (NIR) 2014 for submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, due April 15, 2014. The report contains detailed information about Denmark’s inventories for all years from 1990 to 2012. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC guidelines on reporting and review. The main difference between Denmark’s NIR 2014 report to the European Commission, due March 15, 2014, and this report to UNFCCC is reporting of territories. The NIR 2014 to the EU Commission was for Denmark, while this NIR 2014 to the UNFCCC is for Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The suggested outline provided by the UNFCCC secretariat has been followed to include the necessary information under the Kyoto Protocol. The report includes detailed and complete information on the inventories for all years from year 1990 to the year 2012, in order to ensure transparency.

The annual emission inventories for the years from 1990 to 2012 are reported in the Common Reporting Format (CRF). Within this submission separate CRF’s are available for Denmark (EU), Greenland, the Faroe Islands, for Denmark and Greenland (KP) as well as for Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands (UNFCCC). The CRF spreadsheets contain data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors for each year. Emission trends are given for each greenhouse gas and for total greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents.

The issues addressed in this report are: Trends in greenhouse gas emissions, description of each emission category of the CRF, uncertainty estimates, explanations on recalculations, planned improvements and procedure for quality assurance and control. The information presented in Chapters 2-9 and Chapter 11 refers to Denmark (EU) only. Specific information regarding the submission of Greenland and the Faroe Islands is included in Chapter 16 and Annex 8, respectively. Chapter 17 contains information (e.g. on trends, uncertainties and key category analysis) on the aggregated submission of Denmark and Greenland under the Kyoto Protocol.

This report itself does not contain the full set of CRF tables. The full set of CRF tables is available at the EIONET, Central Data Repository, kept by the European Environmental Agency:
cdr.eionet.europa.eu/dk/Air_Emission_Inventories

In the report English notation is used: “.” (full stop) for decimal sign and mostly space for division of thousands. The English notation for division of thousand as “,” (comma) is not used due to the risk of being misinterpreted by Danish readers.

ES.1.2 Institutions responsible

On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building, the Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE), Aarhus University, is responsible for the calculation and reporting of the Danish national emission inventory to EU and the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and UNECE CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution) conventions. Hence, DCE prepares and publishes the annual submission for Denmark to the EU and UNFCCC of the National Inventory Report and the greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories in the Common Reporting Format, in accordance with the UNFCCC guidelines. Further, DCE is responsible for reporting the national inventory for the Kingdom of Denmark to the UNFCCC. DCE is also the body designated with overall responsibility for the national inventory under the Kyoto Protocol for Greenland and Denmark. Furthermore, DCE participates when reporting issues are discussed in the regime of UNFCCC and EU (Monitoring Mechanism).

The work concerning the annual greenhouse gas emission inventory is carried out in cooperation with Danish ministries, research institutes, organisations and companies. The Government of Greenland is responsible for finalising and transferring the inventory for Greenland to DCE. The Faroe Islands Environmental Agency is responsible for finalising and transferring the inventory for the Faroe Islands to DCE.

ES.1.3 Greenhouse gases

The greenhouse gases reported are those under the UN Climate Convention:

  • Carbon dioxide             CO2
  • Methane                        CH4
  • Nitrous oxide                N2O
  • Hydrofluorocarbons     HFCs
  • Perfluorocarbons          PFCs
  • Sulphur hexafluoride   SF6

The global warming potential (GWP) for various greenhouse gases has been defined as the warming effect over a given time frame of a given weight of a specific substance relative to the same weight of CO2. The purpose of this measure is to be able to compare and integrate the effects of the individual greenhouse gases on the global climate. Typical lifetimes in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases are very different, e.g. approximately 12 and 120 years for CH4 and N2O, respectively. So the time perspective clearly plays a decisive role. The life frame chosen is typically 100 years. The effect of the various greenhouse gases can then be converted into the equivalent quantity of CO2, i.e. the quantity of CO2 giving the same effect in absorbing solar radiation. According to the IPCC and their Second Assessment Report, which UNFCCC has decided to use as reference, the global warming potentials for a 100-year time horizon are:

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2):  1
  • Methane (CH4):            21
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O):    310

Based on weight and a 100-year period, CH4 is thus 21 times more powerful a greenhouse gas than CO2 and N2O is 310 times more powerful than CO2. Some of the other greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride) have considerably higher global warming potentials. For example, sulphur hexafluoride has a global warming potential of 23 900. The values for global warming potential used in this report are those prescribed by UNFCCC. The indirect greenhouse gases reported are nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Since no GWPs are assigned to these gases, they do not contribute to GHG emissions in CO2 equivalents.

ES.2 Summary of national emission and removal trends

Summary ES.2-4 refers to the inventory for Denmark only. The inventories for Greenland, Denmark and Greenland and the Faroe islands are described in Chapter 16 and 17 and Annex 8, respectively.

ES.2.1 Greenhouse gas emissions inventory

The greenhouse gas emissions are estimated according to the IPCC guidelines and guidance and are aggregated into seven main sectors. According to decisions made under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol the greenhouse gas emissions are estimated according to the IPCC 1996 guidelines and the IPCC 2000 good practice guidance. The greenhouse gases include CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Figure ES.1 shows the estimated total greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents from 1990 to 2012. The emissions are not corrected for electricity trade or temperature variations. CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas contributing in 2012 to national total in CO2 equivalents excluding LULUCF (Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry) with 76.3 % followed by N2O with 11.6 %, CH4 10.7 % and F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) with 1.5 %. Seen over the time series from 1990 to 2012 these percentages have been increasing for CH4 and F-gases and decreasing for N2O. The percentages for CO2 show larger fluctuations during the time series. Stationary combustion plants, Transport and Agriculture represent the largest contributing categories to emissions of greenhouse gases, followed by Industrial processes, Waste, Fugitive emissions and Solvents, see Figure ES.1. The net CO2 uptake by LULUCF in 2012 is 0.2 % of the total emission in CO2 equivalents excl. LULUCF. The national total greenhouse gas emission in CO2 equivalents excluding LULUCF has decreased by 24.8 % from 1990 to 2012 and 30.5 % including LULUCF. Comments to the overall trends for the individual greenhouse gases etc. seen in Figure ES.1 are given in the sections below.

ES.2.2 KP-LULUCF activities

Net emissions from Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation (ARD) activities in 2012 were 148 Gg CO2 equivalents, hereof 0.9 Gg CO2 equivalents owe to N2O emissions from disturbance of soils. Net removals from Forest Matter (FM) were 4 479.6 Gg CO2 equivalents (Table ES.1) hereof 12.1 Gg CO2 equivalents owe to N2O emissions from drainage of soils.

For Cropland Management (CM) the net emissions in 2012 were 2 958 Gg CO2 equivalents compared to a net emission in 1990 of 4 845 Gg CO2 equivalents.

For Grassland Management (GM) the net emissions in 2012 were 523 Gg CO2 equivalents compared to a net emission in 1990 of 177 Gg CO2 equivalents.

ES.3 Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends

ES.3.1 Greenhouse gas emissions inventory

Energy

The largest source of CO2 emission is the energy sector, which includes the combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas.

The emission of CO2 from Energy Industries has decreased by 36.8 % from 1990 to 2012. The relatively large fluctuation in the emission is due to inter-country electricity trade. Thus, the high emissions in 1991, 1994, 1996, 2003 and 2006 reflect a large electricity export and the low emissions in 1990, 1992 and 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2012 are due to a large import of electricity. The main reason for this decrease owe to decreasing fuel consumption, mainly for coal and natural gas. This decrease is partly due to increasing import of electricity and partly to increasing production of wind power and other renewable energy sources.

The increasing emission of CH4 during the nineties is due to the increasing use of gas engines in decentralised cogeneration plants. The CH4 emissions from this sector have been decreasing from 2001 to 2012 due to the liberalisation of the electricity market. The CO2 emission from the transport sector increased by 14.0 % from 1990 to 2012, mainly due to increasing road traffic.

Industrial processes

The GHG emissions from industrial processes, i.e. emissions from processes other than fuel combustion, amount in 2012 to 2.6 % of the total emission in CO2 equivalents (excl. LULUCF). The main sources are cement production, refrigeration, foam blowing and calcination of limestone. The CO2 emission from cement production – which is the largest source contributing in 2012 with 1.7 % of the national total – decreased by 1.3 % from 1990 to 2012. The second largest source has previously been N2O from the production of nitric acid. However, the production of nitric acid/fertiliser ceased in 2004 and therefore the emission of N2O also ceased.

The emission of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 has increased by 140.7 % from 1995 until 2012, largely due to the increasing emission of HFCs. The use of HFCs, and especially HFC-134a, has increased several fold and thus HFCs have become the dominant F-gases, contributing 67 % to the F-gas total in 1995, rising to 83.9 % in 2012. HFC-134a is mainly used as a refrigerant. However, the use of HFC-134a is now stabilising. This is due to Danish legislation, which in 2007 banned new HFC-based refrigerant stationary systems. However, in contrast to this trend is the increasing use of air conditioning systems in mobile systems.

Solvent and other product use

The use of solvents in industries and households and other product use contribute 0.3 % of the total greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents. There is a 34.6 % decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from solvent and other product use from 1990 to 2012. In 2012, N2O comprises 11.5 % of the total CO2 equivalent emissions for solvent and other product use.

Agriculture

The agricultural sector contributes in 2012 with 18.6 % of the total greenhouse gas emission in CO2 equivalents (excl. LULUCF) and is the most important sector regarding the emissions of N2O and CH4. In 2012, the contribution of N2O and CH4 to the total emission of these gases was 90.5 % and 76.6 %, respectively. The N2O emission from agriculture decreased by 34.9 % from 1990 to 2012. The main reason for the decrease is a legislative demand for an improved utilisation of nitrogen in manure. This result in less nitrogen excreted per livestock unit produced and a considerable reduction in the use of fertilisers. From 1990 to 2012, the emission of CH4 from enteric fermentation has decreased due to decreasing numbers of cattle. However, the emission from manure management has increased due to changes in stable management systems towards an increase in slurry-based systems. Altogether, the emission of CH4 for the agricultural sector has decreased by 0.7 % from 1990 to 2012.

Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

The LULUCF sector alters between being a net sink and a net source of GHG. In 2012 LULUCF was a net sink with 1.6 % of the total GHG emission excluding LULUCF. In 2011 LULUCF was a net sink equivalent to 4.9 % of the total GHG emission (excluding LULUCF). The overall trend in the LULUCF sector without Forestry is a decrease of 30 % since 1990.

In 2012 Forest Land was a large sink of 4 441 CO2 equivalents, while Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands and Settlements was net sources contributing with 2 956 Gg CO2 equivalents, 554 Gg CO2 equivalents, 2 Gg CO2 equivalents and 91 Gg CO2 equivalents, respectively.

Waste

The waste sector contributes in 2012 with 2.1 % to the national total of greenhouse gas emissions (excl. LULUCF), 15.7 % of the total CH4 emission and 3.4 % of the total N2O emission. The sector comprises solid waste disposal on land, wastewater handling, waste incineration without energy recovery (e.g. incineration of animal carcasses) and other waste (e.g. composting and accidental fires).

The GHG emission from the sector has decreased by 32.4 % from 1990 to 2012. This decrease is a result of (1) a decrease in the CH4 emission from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) by 48.9 % due to the increasing use of waste for power and heat production, and (2) a decrease in emission of N2O from wastewater (WW) handling systems of 30.6 % due to upgrading of WW treatment plants. These decreases are counteracted by an increase in CH4 from WW of 13.0 % due to increasing industrial load to WW systems. In 2012 the contribution of CH4 from SWDS was 12.7 % of the total CH4 emission. The CH4 emission from WW amounts in 2012 to 1.3 % of the total CH4 emissions. The emission of N2O from WW in 2012 is 1.2 % of national total of N2O. Since all incinerated waste is used for power and heat production, the emissions are included in the 1A CRF category.

ES.3.2 KP-LULUCF activities

In 2012 the activities under Article 3.3 was a net source of 148 Gg CO2 equivalents and the activities under Article 3.4 was a net sink of 998 Gg CO2 equivalents. A short overview of KP-LULUCF is given in Chapter ES.2.2 and a more detailed description is given in Chapter 11.

ES.4 Other information

ES.4.1 Quality assurance and quality control

A plan for Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) in greenhouse gas emission inventories is included in the report. The plan is in accordance with the guidelines provided by the UNFCCC (Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Guidelines for National Systems). ISO 9000 standards are also used as an important input for the plan.

The plan comprises a framework for documenting and reporting emissions in a way that emphasize transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy. To fulfil these high criteria, the data structure describes the pathway, from the collection of raw data to data compilation and modelling and finally reporting.

As part of the Quality Assurance (QA) activities, emission inventory sector reports are being prepared and sent for review to national experts not involved in the inventory development. To date, the reviews have been completed for the stationary combustion plants sector, the fugitive emissions from fuels sector, the transport sector, the solvents and other product use sector and the agricultural sector. In order to evaluate the Danish emission inventories, a project where emission levels and emission factors are compared with those in other countries has been conducted.

ES.4.2 Completeness

The Danish greenhouse gas emission inventories include all sources identified by the revised IPPC guidelines.

Please see Annex 5 for more information.

ES.4.3 Recalculations and improvements

The main improvements of the inventories are:

Energy

Stationary Combustion

For stationary combustion plants, the emission estimates for the years 1990-2011 have been updated according to the latest energy statistics published by the Danish Energy Agency. The update included both end use and transformation sectors as well as a source category update. The changes in the energy statistics are largest for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011.

For CO2 the largest recalculation is in source category Manufacturing industries and constructions. The recalculation is related to liquid fuels and is a result of correction of an error. The consumption of residual oil was underestimated in the former inventories. The CO2 emission from liquid fuels applied in manufacturing industries and construction for 2011 is 7% higher in the 2014 reporting than in the 2013 reporting.

The CH4 emission from residential wood combustion has been recalculated based on improved emission factors for stoves. This has caused a 16 % increase of the CH4 emission reported for biomass fuels in residential plants for 2011.

For N2O the largest recalculation is in source category Manufacturing industries and constructions. This recalculation is also related to the former underestimate for residual oil. The N2O emission from liquid fuels applied in manufacturing industries and constructions for 2011 is 13 % higher in the 2014 reporting than in the 2013 reporting.

Mobile sources

The following recalculations and improvements of the emission inventories have been made since the emission reporting in 2013.

Road transport

Based on the updated version of COPERT IV launched in 2013, new vehicle sub categories have been introduced in the emission inventories for mopeds and passenger cars. For mopeds a division is now made between 2-stroke and 4-stroke engine technologies and for passenger cars small engine sizes below 0.8 l. for gasoline and below 1.4 l. for diesel have been included. Also NOx emission factors for euro 5 diesel passenger cars have been updated in the model based on the new COPERT IV version.

Small errors in input gasoline fuel consumption for the years 2009-2011 and for input diesel fuel consumption in the years 2010-2011 have been corrected.

The percentage emission change interval and year of largest percentage differences (low %; high %, year) for the different emission components are: CO2 (-0.5 %; -0.05 %, 2008), CH4 (-0.2 %; 2.4 %, 2011) and N2O (-0.4 %; 0.3 %, 2008).

Navigation

Minor changes in ferry input data has been made for the years 2008-2011 causing minor emission changes for domestic navigation. The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for domestic navigation are noted for: CO2 (-1.0 %), CH4 (-0.8 %) and N2O (-1.1 %).

Agriculture/forestry/fisheries

The number and engine size of machine pool tractors has been updated for the years 2007-2011. The number of ATV’s has been changed for the years 2009-2011. Errors in the fuel consumption for fisheries in 2000, 2010 and 2011 have been corrected.

In 2000 the following percentage differences (in brackets) for agriculture/forestry/fisheries are noted for: CO2 (9.1 %), CH4 (3.7 %) and N2O (11.9 %) due to fuel consumption changes in fisheries.

For other years than 2000, the following largest percentage differences (in brackets) are noted for: CO2 (-3.7 %), CH4 (5 %) and N2O (-4.9 %).

Industry

The number of mini loaders has been updated for the years 2004-2011.

The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for industrial non road machinery are noted for: CO2 (1.0 %), CH4 (1.6 %) and N2O (1.6 %).

Civil aviation

An error in the CH4 emission factor has been corrected for the years 1985-2000. The emission factors are now in line with the factors proposed by the EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook. The CH4 emission percentage differences are between -31 % and -42 %.

Military

Emission factors derived from the new road transport simulations have caused some emission changes from 1985-2010.The following largest percentage differences (in brackets) for military are noted for: CO2 (0 %), CH4 (0.6 %) and N2O (0.2 %).

Fugitive emissions

In the emission inventory reported in 2014 for the years 1990-2012 the following recalculations regarding fugitive emissions from fuels have been applied:

Natural gas transmission and distribution

Activity data and IEF for the time series 1990-2011 has been updated for transmission and distribution according to annual environmental reports and the latest national energy statistics, respectively. Further, the CH4 EFs are updated for one town gas distribution company following an update of the estimated fugitive losses per distribution. The recalculation has changed the CO2 emission by 0.01 ktonnes and CH4 emission by (-0.09) - 0.07 ktonnes, corresponding to < 0.003%   and (-2) % - 2% of the total fugitive CO2 and CH4 emission.

Venting

EFs for CH4 have been added for the years 1990-1993 for one gas storage plant. In these years the plant is treated as an area source in the national system, while it is treated separately as a point source in the following years. EFs are based on data from annual reports for 1995-1999, as no data are available for the years 1990-1994. Further, a minor error has been applied for venting in 2011, according to the annual report from one of the natural gas storage facilities. The recalculation has changed the CH4 emission by 0.06 ktonnes, corresponding to 2% of the total fugitive CH4 emission.

Flaring in gas storage and treatment plants

EFs for CO2 and CH4 have been added for the years 1990-1993 for the gas treatment plant. In these years the plant is treated as an area source in the national system, while it is treated separately as a LPS in the following years. EFs are based on data from annual reports for 1995-1999, as no data are available for the years 1990-1994. The recalculation has changed the CO2 emission by 2.2 ktonnes and the CH4 emission by 0.01 ktonnes, corresponding to 0.4 % and 0.4 % of the total fugitive CO2 and CH4 emission.

Flaring in refineries

The CO2 EF for one refinery has been updated for the years 1994-2006 and now reflects the average EF from the first five EU-ETS reports (2007-2011).  The NOx EF for two refineries has been changed to the standard EF in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook, as references to the previously applied EFs are outdated or not existing.

The CO2 EF for a refinery that was shut down in 1996 has been changed for the years 1990-1996 to match the existing refineries, as no better data is available. CO2 EF for 2010-2011 has been updated and now corresponds to the EU-ETS reporting. The recalculation has changed the CO2 emission by (-0.05) – 0.49 ktonnes and CH4 emission by (-0.06) ktonnes, corresponding to (-0.01) – 0.1%   and (-2) % of the total fugitive CO2 and CH4 emission.

Industrial Processes

Lime production

EU-ETS data have been implemented for one lime production plant for 2011 leading to a minor decrease in the overall emission of CO2 emission by 5.51 ktonnes. This change in methodology will be implemented for the previous years in the next submission.

Limestone and Dolomite Use

Activity data for flue gas cleaning have been changed for three power and waste incineration plants in 2011. Consumption of CaCO3 has increased with 236 tonnes and CaCO3 containing residues have increased with 669 tonnes resulting in an increased CO2 emission of 162 tonnes.

An error in transferring data from the emission database to CRF Reporter has been corrected for 1995-2011 for two individual plants.

Chemical industry

The process emission has been adjusted to reflect the total emission reported in environmental reports minus the energy related emissions reported to EU-ETS.

Consumption of Halocarbons and SF6 – SF6 – Other

A minor correction has been made to emission of SF6 from double glazed windows for 2010.

Potential emissions revised for 2005-7 to reflect the fact that potential emission of SF6 is the same as yearly consumption. Consumption of SF6 for double glaze windows stopped in 2001.

Solvents and Other Product Use

Recalculations have been made for Other Product Use, where changes were made for the activity data of all four emission sources; candles (2009-2011), fireworks (2009-2011), tobacco (1980-1999, 2011) and charcoal used for barbeques (1980-1987, 2009-2011). These changes have caused recalculations for NMVOC, N2O and CO2. NMVOC emissions for the years 1980-1999 have increased between 6.0 % (1997) and 9.1 % (1982) and decreased for 2009-2011 with 2.1 % (2009) to 5.7 % (2011). CO2 emissions have decreased for the years 2009 (13.4 %) and 2010 (6.1 %) and increased for 2011 (0.7 %), no or minor recalculations were performed for 1980-2008. N2O emissions have increased for 1980-1999 with between 0.5 % (1999) and 2.8 % (1982) and decreased for the years 2009-2011 with between 0.3 % (2011) and 1.0 % (2009).

Agriculture

Some changes of emissions from the agricultural sector have taken place. These changes reflect decreased emissions in the years 1990-2011 up to 0.2 % compared to the total CO2 equivalent emission from the agricultural sector. The decrease in 1990-2011 is due to a decrease in the emissions of both N2O and CH4.

The CH4 emission decreases both for emission from enteric fermentation and manure management. The number of geese has been changed for all years and the number of weaners and fattening pigs has been changed for 2011, this affects both emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management. The amount of straw used for bedding for heifers has been changed for 1990-2002 and the amount of biogas treated manure in 2010 has been changed. This affects the emission of CH4 from manure management.

For the N2O emission a range of changes have been made, which have both increasing and decreasing effect. EF for NH3 from synthetic fertiliser has been changed for all years and this affects the emission of N2O. The emission of N2O from atmospheric deposition increases due to the change for NH3 from synthetic fertiliser while the emission of N2O from synthetic fertiliser decreases. Change in the number of geese decrease the emission of N2O from grazing for all years. The change of amount of biogas treated manure decreases the N2O emission in 2010. The emission from manure, manure on soil and leaching is decreased in 2011 due to updated numbers of weaners and fattening pigs.

LULUCF

An update of the LULUCF matrix has taken place for all years. The update was necessary because there were errors in the maps received last year from the Danish Geodata Agency. The problems were especially allocated to a misclassification of recreational areas and a misclassification of parks inside some cities as being forests.

The forest area has been decreased slightly in 2011 (app. 0.3%) compared to the submission last year. This has only had a very limited effect on the total carbon stock in the Danish forest as the carbon stock is estimated in the National Forest Inventory, which is independent of the LULUCF matrix. Furthermore has some unclassified areas inside and around the cities which previous was classified as grassland now been removed to Settlement.

Cropland, grassland, wetlands and settlements

As the land use matrix is slightly changed the emissions from land use conversion for all sectors are changed slightly for the whole time series. These changes have no effect on the emissions from agricultural soils as these are based information from the EU Land Parcel Information System, i.e. the actual land use. Two minor technical errors have been found in the accounting estimate and corrected: living biomass in Settlements and the area accounted for in Cropland Management and Grazing Land Management under article 3.4. These errors have only a small impact on the inventory.

Waste

For the category 6A SWDS, an in depth disaggregation of deposited waste for the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 have been performed based on the new waste reporting system in Denmark. 18 categories have been identified of which eleven have been evaluated as inert waste. The overall results of this detailed characterisation and reallocation of the deposited waste results in a decrease in the CH4 emission in 1990 of 7.6% and an increase in the CH4 emission in 2011 of 4.6%.

For the category 6B wastewater handling, no recalculations were made for N2O. For the methane emissions, the methane correction factor was decreased from 1 to 0.8, which is in accordance to the IPCC guidelines 2006, and which have been further justified by plant specific data. Besides the correction of MCF, smaller corrections in plant inlet TOW data have occurred corresponding to a change below 1% throughout the time series.

There are no recalculations in the waste incineration category, however; a correction in the rounding of decimals has caused an increase of 0.07 % of the N2O emissions from animal cremation for all years 1990-2011.

For the category waste other; changes were made in the vehicle fires and composting source categories. For vehicle fires; the time series for vehicle population has been updated along with the estimated average weights of some vehicle types, the result is a decrease of CH4 and CO2 emissions from 1990-2006 and an increase for 2007-2011. Emission factors have been updated for composting of sludge and organic municipal waste which have resulted in increased emissions of CH4 and N2O. The joint effect of these recalculations is a decrease in CH4 emissions from 1980 (2.4 %) to 1984 (2.0 %) and an increase from 1985 (16.7 %) to 2011 (275 %), for CO2 the emissions have decreased from 1980 (1.1 %) to 2006 (0.004 %) and increased from 2007 (0.1 %) to 2011 (0.2 %), finally the N2O emissions have increased for all years between 1985 (1.1 %) and 2011 (238 %).

KP-LULUCF

A recalculation for KP-LULUCF has been performed for all areas as a consequence of the new land area matrix.